Degree of Freedom is an international civil and structural engineering practice with offices in Oslo, Valencia, Gdansk and Athens. We design bridges, buildings and special structures, in timber, steel, and concrete. We are architecture oriented and innovative.
The project consisted of verifying 19 road bridges that form the bypass of the city of Constanta, Romania. All the bridges have been checked for the ultimate limit and seismic states according to Romanian codes. There are five types of bridges. All bridge types have deep foundations by means of φ1.5m concrete drilled piles reaching the cracked limestone layer (approximately 20-30m below ground level).
Type 1 bridges are a single-span deck. The deck consists of pre-stressed precast concrete beams with an in-situ concrete top slab.
Type 2 bridges consist of 3-span pre-stressed precast concrete beams with an in-situ concrete top slab. They are structurally connected (fully fixed) at transversal girders over columns and abutments. The abutments consist of rectangular concrete columns with a variable cross section connected by a lintel beam. The pier supports consist of either a rectangular or circular concrete sections, depending on the bridge, generally connected by a lintel beam.
Type 3 bridges consist of 3-span post-tensioned concrete beams with an in-situ concrete top slab. They are fully fixed to transversal girders over the columns and abutments. Piers and abutments are similar to the Type 2 bridges.
Type 4 bridges are 2-span cast-in place concrete bridges. The deck is a 1m concrete slab fully fixed to the abutments and the piers.
Type 5 is a 3-span bridge. The deck consists of longitudinal steel girders connected to transverse girders over the supports. All along the beams there are steel beams connecting them transversally. Piers and abutments are similar to those for the Type 2 bridges.
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